Thermal resistance of raffia palm reinforced concrete

  • Samson Olalekan Odeyemi Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kwara State University, P.M.B 1530, Malete, 23431, Kwara State (Nigeria)
  • Zainab Tolu Giwa Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kwara State University, P.M.B 1530, Malete, 23431, Kwara State (Nigeria)
Keywords: concrete, compressive strength, raffia palm fibre, scanning electron microscopy, thermal resistance


There are increasing interests in the usage of natural fibres as reinforcing component for concrete production due to their enormous properties such as low cost, its abundance and availability. This research examined the thermal resistance of Raffia palm fibre reinforced concrete. In this study, 0% to 1% fibre content by weight of cement were incorporated in concrete and their compressive strength were tested after heating. A total number of 36 cubes were prepared, cured and tested at 28 days. Concrete cubes with 0% fibre was used as control specimen. The cubes’ compressive strengths were determined at 0 0C, 556 0C and 659 0C at 0 minutes, 5 minutes and 10 minutes respectively. The result revealed that workability of the concrete declined with a rise in the percentage of raffia palm. There is also a substantial surge in the compressive strength of raffia palm fibre reinforced concrete cubes (RPFRC) compared to the control concrete samples. The compressive strength of the concrete cubes decreased with the rise in temperature for the entire samples tested. It was concluded that a rise in the proportion of fibre in the concrete enhanced their compressive strengths when subjected to heat.

Author Biographies

Samson Olalekan Odeyemi, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kwara State University, P.M.B 1530, Malete, 23431, Kwara State (Nigeria)

P.M.B 1530, 23431, Malete, Kwara State, (Nigeria)


Zainab Tolu Giwa, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kwara State University, P.M.B 1530, Malete, 23431, Kwara State (Nigeria)

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kwara State University, Malete

P.M.B 1530, 23431, Malete, Kwara State, (Nigeria)


ACI Education Bulletin. (2007). Aggregates for Concrete-Materials for Concrete Construction. Developed by Committee E-701, American Concrete Institute, 38800 Country Club Dr, Farmington Hills, Michigan, United States.

Aho, I. M., & Ndububa, E. E. (2015) . Compressive and Flexural Strengthof Cement Mortal Stabilized with Raffia Palm Fruit Peel (RPFP). Global Journal of Engineering Research, 14, 1–7.

Ali, M. (2012). Natural fibres as construction materials. Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology, 3(3), 80–89.

Asare, K. A., Peter, P. Y., & Francis, A. (2016). The use of Raffia Palm (Raffia Hookeri) Piassava Fibre as Reinforcement of Concrete. The International Journal of Engineering and Science, 5(6), 1-6.

Atoyebi, O. D., Osuolale, O. M., & Ibitogbe, E. M. (2019). Strength Evaluation of Cocos nucifera Fibre Reinforced Concrete. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 14(21), 8061–8066.

Bowles, J. E. (1996). Foundation Analysis and Design. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

BS EN 12350-2:2009. (2009). Testing Fresh Concrete – Slump Test, British Standards.

BS EN 12390-3:2009. (2009). Testing Hardened Concrete - Compressive Strength of Test Specimens, British Standards.

BS EN 12390-7:2009. (2009). Testing Hardened Concrete - Density of Hardened Concrete, British Standards.

BS EN 12620:2002+A1:2008. (2008). Specification for Aggregates from natural sources for concrete. British Standards, BSI Group Headquarters 389 Chiswick High Road, London, W4 4AL, UK, Standards Policy and Strategy Committee.

BS EN 1992-1-1:2004+A1:2014. (2014). Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. General rules and rules for buildings.

BS EN 933-1. (2012). Tests for Geometrical Properties of Aggregates - Part 1: Determination of Particle Size Distribution - Sieving Method.

Ejeh, S. P., Abubakar, I., Ocholi, A., & Nurudeen, M. M. (2014). Effect neem seed husk ash on concrete strength properties. Nigerian Journal of Technology, 33(2), 163–169.

Emmanuel, A. O., Oladipo, F. A., & Olabode, O. (2012). Investigation of Salinity effect on Compressive Strength of Reinforced Concrete. Journal of Sustainable Development, 5(6), 74–82.

Esegbuyota, D., Akpokodje, O. I., & Uguru, H. (2019). Physical Characteristics and Compressive Strength of Raffia Fibre Reinforced Sandcrete Blocks. Direct Research Journal of Engineering and Information Technology, 6, 1–8.

Lennon, T., & Moore, D. (2003). The Natural Fire Safety Concept. Fire Safety Journal, 38(7), 623–643.

Lewis, C. (2008). Are House Fire Changing?. The Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 23(1), 44–48.

Manica, G., Bolina, F., Tutikian, B., & Valad, M. (2019). Analysis of the resistance to fire of solid concrete boards with polypropylene microfibers and long curing time. Revista de La Construccion, 18(3), 595–602.

Ndon, B. A. (2003). The Raphia Palm (1st ed.). Concept Publications, Ltd., Lagos, Nigeria.

Neville, A. M. (2011). Properties of Concrete (5th ed.). London, England: Pearson Education Limited. ISBN: 978-0-273-75580-7

Nyior, G. B., Aye, S. A., & Tile, S. E. (2018). Study of Mechanical Properties of Raffia Palm Fibre/Groundnut Shell Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 6, 179–192.

Obahiagbon, F. I. (2009). A review of the origin, morphology, cultivation, economic products, health and physiological implications of raphia palm. African Journal of Food Science, 3(13), 447–453.

Odera, R. S., Onukwuli, O. D., & Osoka, E. C. (2011a). Optimization of Flexural strength of Raffia Palm- Fibre Cement Composites. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2(2), 294–297.

Odera, R. S., Onukwuli, O. D., & Osoka, E. C. (2011b). Stress and strain Characteristics of Raffia Palm Fibre Under Varying Condition. International Journal of Chemical Engineering Research, 3(2), 159–166.

Odeyemi, S O, Abdulwahab, R., Abdulsalam, A. A., & Anifowose, M. A. (2019). Bond and Flexural Strength Characteristics of Partially Replaced Self-Compacting Palm Kernel Shell Concrete. Malaysian Journal Of Civil Engineering, 31(2), 1–7.

Odeyemi, S O, Anifowose, M. A., Oyeleke, M. O., Adeyemi, A. O., & Bakare, S. B. (2015). Effect of Calcium Chloride on the Compressive Strength of Concrete Produced from Three Brands of Nigerian Cement. American Journal of Civil Engineering (AJCE), 3(2–3), 1–5.

Odeyemi, S O, Atoyebi, O. D., & Ayo, E. K. (2020). Effect of Guinea Corn Husk Ash on the Mechanical Properties of Lateritic Concrete. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 445(012034), 1–11.

Odeyemi, S O, Giwa, Z. T., & Abdulwahab, R. (2019). Building Collapse in Nigeria ( 2009- 2019 ), Causes and Remedies – A Review. USEP: Journal of Science and Engineering Production, 1(1), 123–135.

Odeyemi, Samson Olalekan, Akinpelu, M. A., Atoyebi, O. D., & Yahaya, R. T. (2017). Determination of Load Carrying Capacity of Clay Bricks Reinforced With Straw. International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering & Technology, 8(2), 2180–3242. Retrieved from

Osoka, E. C., Onukwuli, O. D., & Kamalu, C. I. (2018). Mechanical Property Of Selected Natural Fibre Reinforced Composites For Automobile Application. American Journal of Engineering Research, 7(5), 384–388.

Pathan, M. A., & Jamnu, M. A. (2012). Compressive Strength Of Conventional Concrete & High Strength Concrete with Temperature Effect. International Journal Of Advanced Engineering Research & Studies, 1(3), 101–102.

Raheem, A. A., & Ibiwoye, E. O. (2018). A study of neem seed husk ash as partial replacement in concrete. International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering & Technology, 9(2), 55–64.

Ramakrishna, G., & Sundararajan, T. (2005). Impact strength of a few natural fibre reinforced cement mortar slabs: A comparative study. Cement & Concrete Composites, 27(5), 547–553.

Robert, J., & Shedrack, T. (2016). Investigation of Thermal Conductivity of Raphia Fibre (Piassava) from Raphia Hookeri. International Journal Of Applied Science and Mathematical Theory, 2, 10–17. ISSN 2489-009X.

Salau, A. S. & Sharu, A.S. (2004). Behaviour of Laterised concrete column Reinforcement with bamboo strips. West Indian Journal of Engineering, 27(1), 38–49.

Shetty, M. S. (2008). Concrete Technology Theory and Practice. S. CHAND & Company Ltd., New-Delhi, India.