An investigation of concrete stress-strain behavior by the image analysis method

  • Mahfuz Pekgöz Department of Civil Engineering, Karabük University, 78000, Karabük (Turkey)
  • Osman Günaydın Department of Civil Engineering, Adıyaman University, 02030, Adıyaman (Turkey)
  • Kadir Güçlüer Vocational Schools of Technical Science, Department of Construction, Adıyaman University, Adıyaman, 02030 (Turkey)
Keywords: concrete, stress-strain behavior, microstructure, image analysis

Abstract

Concrete is a composite load-bearing building material. The deformation behavior of load-bearing materials under load is vital for the building system. Investigation of these brittle and quasi-brittle behavior patterns at various load levels provides an advantage in the evaluation of mechanical properties. In this study, the deformations occurring within the concrete samples in different stress-strain regions were investigated using an image analysis technique. The experimental samples experienced elastic-limit loading for two hours to clearly monitor the deformations at elastic, plastic, and breaking points. For the microstructure studies, the samples were prepared with epoxy for image analysis. Thin-sections were taken from each series of epoxy-impregnated concrete test samples, examined under a microscope, and photographed. Deformation studies on the digital photographs were carried out by the image analysis method. The results show that crack formation and crack types change because of increased stress and deformations. Crack formations within the concrete are parallel to the loading direction and occurred mainly in the aggregate–cement-paste interface. At 85% of the ultimate stress, crack length was measured as 0.665-29.505 mm and crack width 0.180-4.128 mm, while the crack length was 0.305-32.688 mm and crack width were 0.106-2.906 mm at fracture stress.

References

ASTM C597-09. (2009). Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity Through Concrete, USA.

Bazant, Z. P., & Hubler, M. H. (2014). Theory of cyclic creep of concrete based on Paris law for fatigue growth of subcritical microcracks. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 63(1), 187–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmps.2013.09.010.

Bentz, D. P. (2006). Influence of shrinkage-reducing admixtures on early-age properties of cement pastes. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 4(3), 423–429. https://doi.org/10.3151/jact.4.423.

Castro, M., & Sánchez, J. A. (2008). Estimation of asphalt concrete fatigue curves - A damage theory approach. Construction and Building Materials, 22(6), 1232–1238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2007.01.012.

Alterman D., Akita H., Neitzert T., & J. A. (2011). An impregnation technique for crack identification following uniaxial tension tests. Adv. Mater. Res., 275, 51–54.

Erdem, S., Gürbüz, E., & Uysal, M. (2018). Micro-mechanical analysis and X-ray computed tomography quantification of damage in concrete with industrial by-products and construction waste. Journal of Cleaner Production, 189, 933–940, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.04.089.

Erdoğan, T. Y. (2010). Concrete (5th editio). METU publishing.

Glinicki, M. A., & Litorowicz, A. (2006). Crack system evaluation in concrete elements at mesoscale. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences, 54(4), 371–379.

Golewski, G. L. (2018). Evaluation of morphology and size of cracks of the Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ) in concrete containing fly ash (FA). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.06.016.

Bache, H.H., & Christensen P.N. (1965). Observations on strength and fracture in lightweight and ordinary concrete. Proceedings of and Internatiol Conference on the Structure of Concrete and Its Behaviour under Load.

Glucklich, J. (1968). Proceedings of International Conference on the Structure of Concrete. 176–185.

Li, J., Wu, J. Y., & Chen, J. B. (2014). Stochastic Damage Mechanics of Concrete Structures. In Stochastic Damage Mechanics of Concrete Structures (pp. 1–9). Science Press.

Ollivier, J.P. (1985). A nondestructive procedure to observe the microcracks of concrete by scanning electron microscopy. Cem Concr Res, 15, 1055–1060.

Johnston, C. D. (1970a). Strength and deformation of concrete in uniaxial tension and compression. Magazine of Concrete Research, 22(70), 5–16.

Johnston, C. D. (1970b). Strength and deformation of concrete in uniaxial tension and compression. Magazine of Concrete Research, 22(70), 5–16. https://doi.org/10.1680/macr.1970.22.70.5.

Jones, R., & Gatfield, E. N. (1955). Testing Concrete by on Ultrasonic Pulse Technique (p. 34). DISR Road Research, Tech.

Knab, L. I., Walker, H. N., Clifton, J. R., & Fuller, E. R. (1984). Fluorescent thin sections to observe the fracture zone in mortar. Cement and Concrete Research, 14(3), 339–344. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(84)90051-6.

Kong, X., Fang, Q., & Hong, J. (2019). A new damage-based nonlocal model for dynamic tensile failure of concrete material. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 132, 103336. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2019.103336.

Lang, L., Zhu, Z., Zhang, X., Qiu, H., & zhou, C. (2019). Investigation of crack dynamic parameters and crack arresting technique in concrete under impacts. Construction and Building Materials, 199, 321–334. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.12.029.

Shuguang, L., Yihui, L., & Gaixin, C. (2013). Quantitative damage evaluation of AAR-affected concrete by DIP technique. Magazine of Concrete Research, 65(5), 332–342.

Lilliu, G., & van Mier, J. G. M. (2007). On the relative use of micro-mechanical lattice analysis of 3-phase particle composites. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 74(7), 1174–1189, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfracmech.2006.12.018.

Litorowicz, A. (2006). Identification and quantification of cracks in concrete by optical fluorescent microscopy. Cement and Concrete Research, 36(8), 1508–1515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2006.05.011.

Malek, A., Scott, A., Pampanin, S., & MacRae, G. (2017). Post-event damage assessment of concrete using the fluorescent microscopy technique. Cement and Concrete Research, 102, 203–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2017.09.015.

Mehta, P. K., & Monteiro, P. J. M. (2006). Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials. McGraw-Hill Companies.

Mehta, P. K. (2006). Concrete: structure, properties and materials.

Meyers, O. F. S. (1968). Deformation of plain concrete. Paper for the Fifth International Symposium on the Chemistry of Cement.

Alembagheri, M., & Ghaemian, M. (2013). Seismic assessment of concrete gravity dams using capacity estimation and damage indexes. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 42, 123–144. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.

Nemati, K. M., Monteiro, P. J. M., & Scrivener, K. L. (1998). Analysis of compressive stress-induced cracks in concrete. ACI Materials Journal, 95(5), 617–630. https://doi.org/10.14359/404.

Nevİlle, A.M. (1981). Properties of concrete. Pitman Books Limited.

Profant, T., Hrstka, M., & Klusák, J. (2019). An asymptotic analysis of crack initiation from an interfacial zone surrounding the circular inclusion. Composite Structures, 208, 479–497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2018.10.020.

Mindess, S., & Young, J. F. (1986). Concrete. Prentice-Hall.

Santiago, S. D., & Hilsdorf, H. K. (1973). Fracture mechanisms of concrete under compressive loads. Cement and Concrete Research, 3(4), 363–388. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(73)90076-8.

Shen, W., Li, X., Gan, G., Cao, L., Li, C., & Bai, J. (2016). Experimental investigation on shrinkage and water desorption of the paste in high performance concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 114, 618–624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.03.183.

Tanigawa, L., & Yamadaka, K. (1978). Size Effect in Compressive Strength of Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 8(2), 181–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(78)90007-8.

TS EN 12390-3: 2010, Concrete- Hardened concrete tests- Part 3: Estimation of compressive strength in test samples, Turkey.

TS EN 197-1: 2012, Cement - Part 1: General Cements - Composition, Properties and Eligibility Criteria. Concrete properties, performance, manufacturing, and compliance, Turkey.

Upadhyaya, Y. S., & Sridhara, B. K. (2012). Fatigue life prediction: A Continuum Damage Mechanics and Fracture Mechanics approach. Materials and Design, 35, 220–224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2011.09.049.

Whitehurst, E. A. (1951). Soniscope Tests Concrete Structures. ACI Journal Proceedings, 47(2), 433–444. https://doi.org/10.14359/12004.

Xue, Y., Dang, F., Liu, F., Li, R., Ranjith, P. G., Wang, S., Cao, Z., & Yang, Y. (2018). An elastoplastic model for gas flow characteristics around drainage borehole considering post-peak failure and elastic compaction. Environmental Earth Sciences, 77(19), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7855-y.

Yang, C., & Chen, J. (2019). Fully noncontact nonlinear ultrasonic characterization of thermal damage in concrete and correlation with microscopic evidence of material cracking. Cement and Concrete Research, 123, 105797. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2019.105797.

Zaitsev, J. W., & Wittmann, F. H. (1973). Fracture of porous viscoelastic materials under multiaxial state of stress. Cement and Concrete Research, 3(4), 389–395. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(73)90077-X.

Zhang, X., Xu, S., & Zheng, S. (2007). Experimental measurement of double-K fracture parameters of concrete with small-size aggregates. Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China, 1(4), 448–457. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-007-0061-8.

Published
2021-08-19
How to Cite
Pekgöz, M., Günaydın, O., & Güçlüer, K. (2021). An investigation of concrete stress-strain behavior by the image analysis method. Revista De La Construcción. Journal of Construction, 20(2), 308-320. https://doi.org/10.7764/RDLC.20.2.308