Influence of hemp shiv, cement, and water content on the properties of lightweight hemp composites produced using different sizes of hemp shiv


  • Murat Sahin Department of Civil Engineering, Yozgat Bozok University, Yozgat (Turkiye)



Hemp composites, bio-composites, turkish hemp stem, industrial hemp, compressive strength.


This study investigated the production and properties of lightweight hemp composites produced using waste industrial hemp stems cultivated in Turkey. Hemp stems were separated from their fibers and fragmented to obtain hemp shiv aggregates in the laboratory. Twelve mixtures were prepared with varied volumetric ratios of hemp: cement (H:C) and hemp: water (H: W) using different sizes of hemp shiv. The influence of mix proportions on the physical and mechanical properties of hemp composites were investigated. Besides, microstructure of hemp composites was examined. The hemp composites produced were in the apparent density range of 312 to 928 kg/m3 and exhibited 0.20 to 1.24 MPa compressive strength. The water absorptions of samples were in the range of 3.47 and 8.50 kg/m2.h1/2. The apparent density and compressive strength of hemp composites decreased with the increase of H:C ratio, but this situation is the opposite for increase of H: W ratio and hemp shiv size. Besides, increase in H:C ratio or hemp shiv size caused higher water absorptions.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmad, M. R., & Chen, B. (2020). Influence of type of binder and size of plant aggregate on the hygrothermal properties of bio-concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 251, 118981.

Amziane, S. (2016). Overview on biobased building material made with plant aggregate. Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies, 2016-Augus, 31–38.

Amziane, S., Arnaud, L., & Challamel, N. (2013). Bio-aggregate-based building materials. Aplication for Hemp Concrete, Ediia, 1, 1–11.

Amziane, S., Collet, F., Lawrence, M., Magniont, C., Picandet, V., & Sonebi, M. (2017). Recommendation of the RILEM TC 236-BBM: characterisation testing of hemp shiv to determine the initial water content, water absorption, dry density, particle size distribution and thermal conductivity. Materials and Structures, 50(3), 167.

Arehart, J. H., Nelson, W. S., & Srubar, W. V. (2020). On the theoretical carbon storage and carbon sequestration potential of hempcrete. Journal of Clean-er Production, 266, 121846.

Arnaud, L., & Gourlay, E. (2012). Experimental study of parameters influencing mechanical properties of hemp concretes. Construction and Building Ma-terials, 28(1), 50–56.

Arufe, S., Hellouin de Menibus, A., Leblanc, N., & Lenormand, H. (2021). Effect of retting on hemp shiv physicochemical properties. Industrial Crops and Products, 171, 113911.

ASTM C1585. (2013). Standard test method for measurement of rate of absorption of water by hydraulic cement concrete. West Conshohocken, PA.

Barbhuiya, S., & Bhusan Das, B. (2022). A comprehensive review on the use of hemp in concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 341, 127857.

Barbieri, V., Lassinantti Gualtieri, M., & Siligardi, C. (2020). Wheat husk: A renewable resource for bio-based building materials. Construction and Build-ing Materials, 251, 118909.

Benfratello, S., Capitano, C., Peri, G., Rizzo, G., Scaccianoce, G., & Sorrentino, G. (2013). Thermal and structural properties of a hemp-lime biocomposite. Construction and Building Materials, 48, 745–754.

Benmahiddine, F., Cherif, R., Bennai, F., Belarbi, R., Tahakourt, A., & Abahri, K. (2020). Effect of flax shives content and size on the hygrothermal and mechanical properties of flax concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 262, 120077.

Brzyski, P., Gładecki, M., Rumińska, M., Pietrak, K., Kubiś, M., & Łapka, P. (2020). Influence of hemp shives size on hygro-thermal and mechanical prop-erties of a hemp-lime composite. Materials, 13(23), 1–17.

Colinart, T., Glouannec, P., & Chauvelon, P. (2012). Influence of the setting process and the formulation on the drying of hemp concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 30, 372–380.

Çomak, B., Bideci, A., & Salli Bideci, Ö. (2018). Effects of hemp fibers on characteristics of cement based mortar. Construction and Building Materials, 169, 794–799.

da Gloria, M. Y. R., Andreola, V. M., dos Santos, D. O. J., Pepe, M., & Toledo Filho, R. D. (2021). A comprehensive approach for designing workable bio-based cementitious composites. Journal of Building Engineering, 34, 101696.

Daly, P., Ronchetti, P., & Woolley, T. (2012). Hemp Lime Bio-composite as a Building Material Irish Construction. Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland.

de Bruijn, P., Jeppsson, K. H., Sandin, K., & Nilsson, C. (2009). Mechanical properties of lime-hemp concrete containing shives and fibres. Biosystems Engineering, 103(4), 474–479.

De Bruijn, P., & Johansson, P. (2013). Moisture fixation and thermal properties of lime-hemp concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 47, 1235–1242.

Degrave-Lemeurs, M., Glé, P., & Hellouin de Menibus, A. (2018). Acoustical properties of hemp concretes for buildings thermal insulation: Application to clay and lime binders. Construction and Building Materials, 160, 462–474.

Del Valle-Zermeño, R., Aubert, J. E., Laborel-Préneron, A., Formosa, J., & Chimenos, J. M. (2016). Preliminary study of the mechanical and hygrothermal properties of hemp-magnesium phosphate cements. Construction and Building Materials, 105, 62–68.

Delhomme, F., Hajimohammadi, A., Almeida, A., Jiang, C., Moreau, D., Gan, Y., Wang, X., & Castel, A. (2020). Physical properties of Australian hurd used as aggregate for hemp concrete. Materials Today Communications, 24, 100986.

Demir, İ., & Doğan, C. (2020). Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hempcrete. The Open Waste Management Journal, 13(1), 26–34.

Dhakal, U., Berardi, U., Gorgolewski, M., & Richman, R. (2017). Hygrothermal performance of hempcrete for Ontario (Canada) buildings. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 3655–3664.

Dinh, T. M., Magniont, C., & Coutand, M. (2012). Hemp concrete using innovative pozzolanic binder. First International Conference on Bio-Based Build-ing Materials, 33(July 2015), 265–270.

Evrard, A. (2008). Transient hygrothermal behaviour of Lime-Hemp Materials. In PhD Thesis. Universite Catholique De Louvain.

Ghavami, K. (2005). Bamboo as reinforcement in structural concrete elements. Cement and Concrete Composites, 27(6), 637–649.

Gourlay, E., Glé, P., Marceau, S., Foy, C., & Moscardelli, S. (2017). Effect of water content on the acoustical and thermal properties of hemp concretes. Construction and Building Materials, 139, 513–523.

Guo, A., Sun, Z., Qi, C., & Sathitsuksanoh, N. (2020). Hydration of Portland Cement Pastes Containing Untreated and Treated Hemp Powders. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 32(6), 04020148.

Hernández-Olivares, F., Elizabeth Medina-Alvarado, R., Burneo-Valdivieso, X. E., & Rodrigo Zúñiga-Suárez, A. (2020). Short sugarcane bagasse fibers cementitious composites for building construction. Construction and Building Materials, 247, 118451.

Huda, M. N., Jumat, M. Z. Bin, Islam, A. B. M. S., & Soeb, M. R. (2016). Influence of palm oil factory wastes as coarse aggregate species for green light-weight concrete. Revista de La Construcción. Journal of Construction, 15(3), 133–139.

Hussain, A., Calabria-Holley, J., Lawrence, M., & Jiang, Y. (2019). Hygrothermal and mechanical characterisation of novel hemp shiv based thermal insula-tion composites. Construction and Building Materials, 212, 561–568.

Jami, T., Karade, S. R., & Singh, L. P. (2019). A review of the properties of hemp concrete for green building applications. Journal of Cleaner Production, 239, 117852.

Jami, T., Rawtani, D., & Agrawal, Y. K. (2016). Hemp concrete: carbon-negative construction. Emerging Materials Research, 5(2), 240–247.

Jones, D., & Brischke, C. (2017). Performance of Bio-based Building Materials. In Performance of Bio-based Building Materials. Woodhead Publishing.

Kanojia, A., & Jain, S. K. (2017). Performance of coconut shell as coarse aggregate in concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 140, 150–156.

Khorami, M., & Ganjian, E. (2013). The effect of limestone powder, silica fume and fibre content on flexural behaviour of cement composite reinforced by waste Kraft pulp. Construction and Building Materials, 46, 142–149.

Kinnane, O., Reilly, A., Grimes, J., Pavia, S., & Walker, R. (2016). Acoustic absorption of hemp-lime construction. Construction and Building Materials, 122, 674–682.

Korniejenko, K., Łach, M., Hebdowska-Krupa, M., & Mikuła, J. (2018). The mechanical properties of flax and hemp fibres reinforced geopolymer compo-sites. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 379, 012023.

Latif, E., Lawrence, M., Shea, A., & Walker, P. (2015). Moisture buffer potential of experimental wall assemblies incorporating formulated hemp-lime. Building and Environment, 93(P2), 199–209.

Mardani-Aghabaglou, A., Özen, S., & Gökhan Altun, M. (2020). Effect of curing conditions during the first 24 hours after casting on the properties of mortar mixtures. Revista de La Construcción, 19(1), 68–79.

Murphy, F., Pavia, S., & Walker, R. (2010). An assessment of the physical properties of lime-hemp concrete. Proceeding of the Bridge and Concrete Re-search in Ireland, Cork.

Narattha, C., Wattanasiriwech, S., & Wattanasiriwech, D. (2022). Thermal and mechanical characterization of fly ash geopolymer with aluminium chloride and potassium hydroxide treated hemp shiv lightweight aggregate. Construction and Building Materials, 331.

Niyigena, C., Amziane, S., & Chateauneuf, A. (2018). Multicriteria analysis demonstrating the impact of shiv on the properties of hemp concrete. Construc-tion and Building Materials, 160, 211–222.

Niyigena, C., Amziane, S., Chateauneuf, A., Arnaud, L., Bessette, L., Collet, F., Escadeillas, G., Lanos, C., Lawrence, M., Magniont, C., Marceau, S., Pavia, S., Peter, U., Picandet, V., Sonebi, M., & Walker, P. (2015). RRT3: Statistical analysis of hemp concrete mechanical properties variability. First International Conference on Bio-Based Building Materials, 33(June), 334–340.

Official Gazette of the Republic of Turkey. (2016). Implementing Regulation on Hemp Growing and Control (2016), Accessed 1 May 2021. Directorate of Presidential Administrative Affairs, General Directorate of Law and Legislation.

Orsini, F., & Marrone, P. (2019). Approaches for a low-carbon production of building materials: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 241, 118380.

Page, J., Sonebi, M., & Amziane, S. (2017). Design and multi-physical properties of a new hybrid hemp-flax composite material. Construction and Building Materials, 139, 502–512.

Panesar, D. K., & Shindman, B. (2012). The mechanical, transport and thermal properties of mortar and concrete containing waste cork. Cement and Con-crete Composites, 34(9), 982–992.

Pavía, S. (2017). Effect of testing variables (Method of production). In RILEM State-of-the-Art Reports (Vol. 23, pp. 189–201). Springer.

Petrella, A., Spasiano, D., Liuzzi, S., Ayr, U., Cosma, P., Rizzi, V., Petrella, M., & Di Mundo, R. (2019). Use of cellulose fibers from wheat straw for sus-tainable cement mortars. Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials, 8(3), 161–179.

Rahim, M., Douzane, O., Tran Le, A. D., & Langlet, T. (2016). Effect of moisture and temperature on thermal properties of three bio-based materials. Con-struction and Building Materials, 111, 119–127.

Ratiarisoa, R. V., Magniont, C., Ginestet, S., Oms, C., & Escadeillas, G. (2016). Assessment of distilled lavender stalks as bioaggregate for building mate-rials: Hygrothermal properties, mechanical performance and chemical interactions with mineral pozzolanic binder. Construction and Building Materi-als, 124, 801–815.

Sáez-Pérez, M. P., Brümmer, M., & Durán-Suárez, J. A. (2020). A review of the factors affecting the properties and performance of hemp aggregate con-cretes. Journal of Building Engineering, 31, 101323.

Sáez-Pérez, M. P., Brümmer, M., & Durán-Suárez, J. A. (2021). Effect of the state of conservation of the hemp used in geopolymer and hydraulic lime concretes. Construction and Building Materials, 285, 122853.

Sassoni, E., Manzi, S., Motori, A., Montecchi, M., & Canti, M. (2014). Novel sustainable hemp-based composites for application in the building industry: Physical, thermal and mechanical characterization. Energy and Buildings, 77, 219–226.

Sassu, M., Giresini, L., Bonannini, E., & Puppio, M. L. (2016). On the use of vibro-compressed units with bio-natural aggregate. Buildings, 6(3), 40.

Sedan, D., Pagnoux, C., Smith, A., & Chotard, T. (2008). Mechanical properties of hemp fibre reinforced cement: Influence of the fibre/matrix interaction. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 28(1), 183–192.

Seng, B., Magniont, C., & Lorente, S. (2019). Characterization of a precast hemp concrete block. Part II: Hygric properties. Journal of Building Engineer-ing, 24, 100579.

Singh, S. B., Munjal, P., & Thammishetti, N. (2015). Role of water/cement ratio on strength development of cement mortar. Journal of Building Engineer-ing, 4, 94–100.

Somé, S. C., Ben Fraj, A., Pavoine, A., & Hajj Chehade, M. (2018). Modeling and experimental characterization of effective transverse thermal properties of hemp insulation concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 189, 384–396.

Sonebi, M., Wana, S., Amziane, S., & Khatib, J. (2015). Investigation of the mechanical performance and weathering of hemp concrete. Academic Journal of Civil Engineering, 33(2), 416–421.

Stevulova, N., Kidalova, L., Cigasova, J., Junak, J., Sicakova, A., & Terpakova, E. (2013). Lightweight composites containing hemp hurds. Procedia Engi-neering, 65, 69–74.

Stevulova, N., Kidalova, L., Junak, J., Cigasova, J., & Terpakova, E. (2012). Effect of hemp shive sizes on mechanical properties of lightweight fibrous composites. Procedia Engineering, 42, 496–500.

TS EN 197-1. (2012). Cement – Part 1: Composition, specification and conformity criteria for common cements. Turkish Standard Institution.

Wadi, H., Amziane, S., Toussaint, E., & Taazount, M. (2019). Lateral load-carrying capacity of hemp concrete as a natural infill material in timber frame walls. Engineering Structures, 180, 264–273.

Walker, R., & Pavia, S. (2012). Impact of water retainers in the strength , drying and setting of lime hemp concrete. Bridge and Concrete Research in Ire-land (BCRI), 355–360.

Walker, R., & Pavía, S. (2014). Moisture transfer and thermal properties of hemp-lime concretes. Construction and Building Materials, 64, 270–276.

Walker, R., Pavia, S., & Mitchell, R. (2014). Mechanical properties and durability of hemp-lime concretes. Construction and Building Materials, 61, 340–348.

Wang, L., Lenormand, H., Zmamou, H., & Leblanc, N. (2021). Effect of variability of hemp shiv on the setting of lime hemp concrete. Industrial Crops and Products, 171, 113915.

Williams, J., Lawrence, M., & Walker, P. (2017). The influence of the casting process on the internal structure and physical properties of hemp-lime. Mate-rials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions, 50(2), 1–10.

Williams, J., Lawrence, M., & Walker, P. (2018). The influence of constituents on the properties of the bio-aggregate composite hemp-lime. Construction and Building Materials, 159, 9–17.

Youssef, A., Lecompte, T., Picandet, V., & Challamel, N. (2015). Compressive and shearing behavior of lime and hemp concrete. First International Con-ference on Bio-Based Building Materials, 33(2), 405–411.



2022-12-29 — Updated on 2023-01-03


How to Cite

Sahin, M. (2023). Influence of hemp shiv, cement, and water content on the properties of lightweight hemp composites produced using different sizes of hemp shiv. Revista De La Construcción. Journal of Construction, 21(3), 570–586. (Original work published December 29, 2022)