Evaluation of cold emulsified bitumen mixes using recycled con-crete aggregates as a base course


  • Sarella Chakravarthi Civil Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Warangal (India)
  • Raj Kumar Galipelli Civil Engineering Department, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur (India)
  • Shankar Sabavath Civil Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Warangal (India)




Cold emulsified-bitumen mixtures (CEBM), recycled concrete aggregates (RCA), dynamic creep, bitumen emul-sion content (EAC), moisture loss, pavement design.


The utilization of cold bituminous mixes in road construction is an environmentally and economically viable alternative to other stabilization processes. Besides, the incorporation of recycled materials into the cold mixes increases sustainability and decreases waste generation. The stabilization of Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) with cement for pavement bases is a known one. However, the stabilization of RCA using bitumen emulsion is limited in nature. The present study evaluated the mechanical properties of the cold mixes prepared using RCA in different proportions (25%, 50%) with varying bitumen emulsion contents (5, 6, 7%). The compacted and cured samples are investigated for mechanical characteristics like density, Marshall Stability, Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS), Resilient Modulus, and permanent deformation. The dynamics of moisture evaporation and durability in terms of tensile strength ratios are studied. In the end, the vertical compressive and horizontal tensile strains of the pavement sections with bitumen emulsion stabilized bases are analyzed using IITPAVE software. The obtained results are compared using the critical strains calculated from the performance equations given by IRC (2018). It is noted that there is a decrease in the overall thickness of the pavement for the design traffic that varies from 5msa to 50msa. From this study, the base courses are recommended with bitumen emulsion treated RCA mixes, for traffic levels, up to 20 msa which would result in both -reductions in cost as well as the reduction in pavement overall-thickness. The present study also concluded that the optimum emulsion content of 6% does not show better resistance to permanent deformation. From the results, it is also suggested multi-variant mix-design criteria rather than a single indicative parameter.


Download data is not yet available.


Akcay, C., & Manisali, E. (2018). Fuzzy decision support model for the selection of contractor in construction works. Revista de la Construcción. Journal of Construction, 17(2), 258-266.

Aher, D. D., Sangale, Y.B., Pagar, S.R., and Patil, R.R.Y. (2018). Cement Treated Sub-Base for Bituminous Pavement. In: Published at 6th International Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology; May 30-31, 2018; Nashik, Maharastra, India, 875-880.

Arimilli, S., Jain, P.K., and Nagabhushana, M.N. (2016). Optimization of recycled asphalt pavement in cold emulsified mixtures by mechanistic character-ization. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 28 (2), 04015132. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0001412.

Asphalt Academy. (2009). Technical guideline: Bitumen stabilised materials. A guide for the design and construction of bitumen emulsion and foamed bitumen stabilised materials, 1st Ed., Pretoria, South Africa.

Asphalt Institute. (1997). Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual series no. 19 (ms-19), Inc., Lexington, Kentucky.

ASTM. (1995). Standard test method for indirect tension test for resilient modulus of bituminous mixtures. ASTM D4123, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM. (2012). Standard test method for indirect tensile (IDT) strength of bituminous mixtures. ASTM D6931, West Conshohocken, PA.

Behnood, A., Gharehveran, M.M., Asl, F.G., and Ameri, M. (2015). Effects of copper slag and recycled concrete aggregate on the properties of CIR mixes with bitumen emulsion, rice husk ash, Portland cement and fly ash. Construction and Building Materials, 96, 172-180.

Bessa, I. S., Almeida, L. R., Vasconcelos, K. L., and Bernucci, L. L. (2016). Design of cold recycled mixes with asphalt emulsion and Portland cement. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 43(9), 773-782.

Bureau of Indian Standards. (1963). Tests on Aggregates. IS 2386 (Part I, Part II, Part III and Part IV), New Delhi, India.

Bureau of Indian Standards. (1978a). Indian standard methods for testing tar and bituminous materials (Determination of Penetration). IS 1203, New Delhi, India.

Bureau of Indian Standards. (1978b). Indian standard methods for testing tar and bituminous materials (Determination of ductility). IS 1208, New Delhi, India.

Bureau of Indian Standards. (2004). Bitumen Emulsion for Roads and allied Applications (Anionic type). IS 3117, New Delhi, India.

Bureau of Indian Standards. (2018). Bitumen Emulsion for Roads (Cationic type) Specification. IS 8887, New Delhi, India.

Chehovits, J. and Galehouse, L. (2010). Energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions of pavement preservation processes for asphalt concrete pavements. In Proceedings on the 1st International Conference of Pavement Preservation, 1, 27-42.

Dong, W. and Charmot, S. (2019). Proposed tests for cold recycling balanced mixture design with measured impact of varying emulsion and cement con-tents. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 31(2), 04018387.

Fang, Xing, Hernandez, A.G., and Lura, P. (2016). Overview on cold cement bitumen emulsion asphalt. RILEM Technical Letters, 1, 116-121.

Flores, G., Gallego, J., Miranda, L., and Marcobal, J.R. 2019. Design methodology for in situ cold recycled mixtures with emulsion and 100% rap. Construction and Building Materials, 216, 496-505.

Flores, G., Gallego, J., Miranda, L., and Marcobal, J.R. (2020).Cold asphalt mix with emulsion and 100% rap: Compaction energy and influence of emul-sion and cement content. Construction and Building Materials, 250, 118804.

Francois, A., Ali, A., and Mehta, Y. (2019). Evaluating the impact of different types of stabilised bases on the overall performance of flexible pave-ments. International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 20 (8), 938-946.

Ge, Z., Li, H., Han, Z., and Zhang, Q. (2015). Properties of cold mix asphalt mixtures with reclaimed granular aggregate from crushed PCC pave-ment. Construction and Building Materials, 77, 404-408.

Gómez-Meijide, B., Pérez, I., and Pasandín, A.R. (2016). Recycled construction and demolition waste in cold asphalt mixtures: evolutionary proper-ties. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, 588-598.

Graziani, A., Iafelice, C., Raschia, S., Perraton, D., and Carter, A. (2018). A procedure for characterizing the curing process of cold recycled bitumen emul-sion mixtures. Construction and Building Materials, 173, 754-762.

Guatimosim, F. V., Vasconcelos, K. L., Bernucci, L. L., and Jenkins, K. J. (2018). Laboratory and field evaluation of cold recycling mixture with foamed asphalt. Road Materials and Pavement Design. 19 (2), 385-399.

IRC (Indian Road Congress). (2014). Use of Cold Mix Technology in Construction & Maintenance of Roads Using Bitumen Emulsion. IRC: SP-100, New Delhi.

IRC (Indian Roads Congress). (2012). Guidelines for the design of flexible pavements. IRC: 37, New Delhi.

IRC (Indian Roads Congress).( 2018). Guidelines for the design of flexible pavements. IRC: 37, New Delhi.

Joni, H. H. (2018). Studying the effect of emulsified asphalt type on cold emulsified asphalt mixtures properties. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 433(1), 012038. IOP Publishing, 2018.

Kar, S. S., Beniwal, N., & Bharath, G. (2023). Microstructure Analysis of Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixture Using Different Filler Type. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 51(4), 2120-2131.

Kaloush, K. E., Witczak, M. W., and Sullivan, B. W. (2003). Simple performance test for permanent deformation evaluation of asphalt mixtures. In: Sixth international RILEM symposium on performance testing and evaluation of bituminous materials (pp. 498-505). RILEM Publications SARL.

Kalyoncuoglu, S. F. and Tigdemir, M. (2011). A model for dynamic creep evaluation of SBS modified HMA mixtures. Construction and Building Materi-als, 25(2), 859-866.

Khodaii, A. and Mehrara, A. (2009). Evaluation of permanent deformation of unmodified and SBS modified asphalt mixtures using dynamic creep test. Construction and Building Materials, 23(7), 2586-2592.

Kishore Kumar, C., Amar Kumar, D.S.N.V., Amaranatha reddy, M., and Sudhakar Reddy, K. (2008). Investigation of cold-in-place recycled mixes in India. International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 9(4), 265-274.

Lyubarskaya, M.A., Merkusheva, V.S., Osian, P.A., Ilin, A.A., and Svintsov, E.S. (2017). Integrated approach to using technology of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), Proc. Eng, 189, 860–866.

Ma, F., Sha, A., Lin, R., Huang, Y., and Wang, C. (2016). Greenhouse gas emissions from asphalt pavement construction: A case study in Chi-na. International journal of environmental research and public health, 13(3), 351.

Mohammad, L. N. and Nazzal, M. (2017). Evaluation of a Performance-Based Approach to Design Asphalt-Treated Base Mixtures. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 29(7), 04017049.

Munoz, J. S. C., Kaseer, F., Arambula, E., and Martin, A.E. (2015).Use of the resilient modulus test to characterize asphalt mixtures with recycled materials and recycling agents. Transportation Research Record, 2506 (1), 45-53.

NCHRP 465. (2002). Simple performance test for Superpave mix design. National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Rep. No. 465.

Ouyang, J., Hu, L., Yang, W., and Han, B. (2019). Strength improvement additives for cement bitumen emulsion mixture. Construction and Building Ma-terials, 198, 456-464.

Peng, B., Cai, C., Yin, G., Li, W., and Zhan, Y. (2015). Evaluation system for CO2 emission of hot asphalt mixture. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition), 2(2), 116-124.

Swaroopa, S., Sravani, A., and Jain, P.K. (2015). Comparison of mechanistic characteristics of cold, mild warm and half warm mixes for bituminous road construction. Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Science, 22, 85-92.

Thives, L. P. and Ghisi, E. (2017). Asphalt mixtures emission and energy consumption: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.72, 473-484.

Visser, H. A. T. (2004). The role of fillers and cementitious binders when recycling with foamed bitumen or bitumen emulsion. In: 8th Conf. Asph. Pave-ments South. Africa. CD-ROM.

Xiao, J., Jiang, W., Ye, W., Shan, J., and Wang, Z. (2019). Effect of cement and emulsified asphalt contents on the performance of cement-emulsified asphalt mixture. Construction and Building Materials, 220, 577-586.

Yan, J., Leng, Z., Li, F., Zhu, H., and Bao, S. (2017). Early-age strength and long-term performance of asphalt emulsion cold recycled mixes with various cement contents. Construction Building Materials, 137, 153–159.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.01.114.

Zapata, P. and Gambatese, J.A. (2005). Energy consumption of asphalt and reinforced concrete pavement materials and construction. Journal of infra-structure systems, 11(1), 9-20.

Zhu, C., Zhang, H., Guo, H., Wu, C., and Wei, C. (2019). Effect of gradations on the final and long-term performance of asphalt emulsion cold recycled mixture. Journal of cleaner production, 217, 95-104.




How to Cite

Chakravarthi, S., Galipelli, R. K., & Sabavath, S. (2023). Evaluation of cold emulsified bitumen mixes using recycled con-crete aggregates as a base course. Revista De La Construcción. Journal of Construction, 22(2), 523–552. https://doi.org/10.7764/RDLC.22.2.523