Prediction of the mechanical properties of concrete incorporating simultaneous utilization of fine and coarse recycled aggregate
Keywords:Recycled aggregates, circular economy, construction and demolition waste, optimization, response surface methodology, fuzzy logic.
The mechanical properties of concrete were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and fuzzy logic. The aggregate portion of the concrete was replaced with recycled aggregate to address the environmental problems caused by building demolition wastes. The essential key factors that influenced the suitability of recycled aggregate in concrete applications are the compressive strength (CS), flexural strength (FS), and the split tensile strength (STS). The experiments were designed with nine combinations of two input factors (percentage of coarse and fine recycled aggregates) at different levels 30, 60, and 100%. Furthermore, optimization techniques were used to determine the strong correlations between the variables and the mechanical parameters. Such optimization techniques helped to identify the optimistic maximum strength for replacing 44% coarse and 65% fine recycled aggregate. Using RSM, the maximum strength results were found to be: CS at 7, 28, 56, and 90 days were 23.61, 35.04, 40.02, and 43.63 N/mm2, respectively, FS 3.6 N/mm2 and STS 2.0 N/mm2. The maximum strength parameters were found using fuzzy logic: CS at 7, 28, 56, and 90 days were 23.5, 35.8, 41, and 46.7 N/mm2, respectively, FS 4.13 N/mm2 and STS 1.97 N/mm2. Such optimization can be carried out to lower the material wastage, energy consumption, and expenses for the production.
Akkurt, S., Tayfur, G., & Can, S. (2004). Fuzzy logic model for the prediction of cement compressive strength. Cement and Concrete Research, 34(8), 1429–1433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.01.020
Alaneme, G. U., & Mbadike, E. M. (2021). Optimisation of Strength Development of Bentonite and Palm Bunch Ash Concrete Using Fuzzy Logic. International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 14(4), 835–851. https://doi.org/10.1080/19397038.2021.1929549
Amiri, H., Azadi, S., Karimaei, M., Sadeghi, H., & Farshad Dabbaghi. (2022). Multi-objective optimization of coal waste recycling in concrete using response surface methodology. Journal of Building Engineering, 45(July 2021), 103472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2021.103472
Amran, M., Fediuk, R., Murali, G., Avudaiappan, S., & Ozbakkaloglu, T. (2021). Fly Ash-Based Eco-Efficient Concretes : A Comprehensive Review of the Short-Term Properties. 1–41.
Ba, D., & Boyaci, I. H. (2007). Modeling and optimization i: Usability of response surface methodology. Journal of Food Engineering, 78(3), 836–845. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.11.024
Boudjema, S., Zerrouki, M., & Choukchou-Braham, A. (2018). Experimental Design for Modeling and Multi-response Optimization of Catalytic Cyclohexene Epoxidation over Polyoxometalates. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, 65(4), 435–444. https://doi.org/10.1002/jccs.201700291
Boutra, B., Sebti, A., & Trari, M. (2022). Response surface methodology and artificial neural network for optimization and modeling the photodegradation of organic pollutants in water. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-021-03875-1
Cantero, B., Sáez del Bosque, I. F., Matías, A., & Medina, C. (2018). Statistically significant effects of mixed recycled aggregate on the physical-mechanical properties of structural concretes. Construction and Building Materials, 185, 93–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.07.060
Chinzorigt, G., Lim, M. K., Yu, M., Lee, H., Enkbold, O., & Choi, D. (2020). Strength, shrinkage and creep and durability aspects of concrete including CO2 treated recycled fine aggregate. Cement and Concrete Research, 136(September 2019), 106062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2020.106062
Dabbaghi, F., Nasrollahpour, S., Dehestani, M., & Yousefpour, H. (2022). Optimization of Concrete Mixtures Containing Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregates Based on Mechanical, Economical, Fire-Resistance, and Environmental Considerations. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 34(2). https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0004083
Garza-Ulloa, J. (2018). Application of mathematical models in biomechatronics: artificial intelligence and time-frequency analysis. In Applied Biomechatronics using Mathematical Models. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-812594-6.00006-8
Hameed, R., Zaib-Un-Nisa, Riaz, M. R., & Gillani, S. A. A. (2022). Effect of compression casting technique on the water absorption properties of concrete made using 100% recycled aggregates. Revista de La Construccion, 21(2), 387–407. https://doi.org/10.7764/RDLC.21.2.387
Huang, B., Wang, X., Kua, H., Geng, Y., Bleischwitz, R., & Ren, J. (2018). Construction and demolition waste management in China through the 3R principle. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 129(September 2017), 36–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.09.029
Jagan, S., Neelakantan, T. R., & Saravanakumar, P. (2021). Mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete treated by variation in mixing approaches. Revista de La Construccion, 20(2), 236–248. https://doi.org/10.7764/RDLC.20.2.35
Jain, M. S. (2021). A mini review on generation, handling, and initiatives to tackle construction and demolition waste in India. Environmental Technology and Innovation, 22, 101490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2021.101490
Joseph, H. S., Pachiappan, T., Avudaiappan, S., & Flores, E. I. S. (2022). A Study on Mechanical and Microstructural Characteristics of Concrete Using Recycled Aggregate. Materials, 15(21). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15217535
Liang, C., Ma, H., Pan, Y., Ma, Z., Duan, Z., & He, Z. (2019). Chloride permeability and the caused steel corrosion in the concrete with carbonated recycled aggregate. Construction and Building Materials, 218, 506–518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.05.136
Liu, B., Feng, C., & Deng, Z. (2019). Shear behavior of three types of recycled aggregate concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 217, 557–572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.05.079
Liu, X., Wu, J., Yan, P., & Ji, W. (2021). Grading Method of Mixed Recycled Coarse Aggregate. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 33(5), 04021085. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0003682
Ozbakkaloglu, T., Gholampour, A., & Xie, T. (2018). Mechanical and Durability Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete: Effect of Recycled Aggregate Properties and Content. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 30(2), 04017275. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0002142
Pacheco, J., & de Brito, J. (2021). Recycled aggregates produced from construction and demolition waste for structural concrete: Constituents, properties and production. Materials, 14(19). https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14195748
Poorarbabi, A., Ghasemi, M., & Azhdary Moghaddam, M. (2020). Concrete compressive strength prediction using non-destructive tests through response surface methodology. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 11(4), 939–949. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2020.02.009
Sinkhonde, D., Onchiri, R. O., Oyawa, W. O., & Mwero, J. N. (2021). Response surface methodology-based optimisation of cost and compressive strength of rubberised concrete incorporating burnt clay brick powder. Heliyon, 7(12), e08565. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08565
Swarna K., S., Tezeswi., T. ., & Kumar S, M. V. (2022). Implementing construction waste management in India: An extended theory of planned behaviour approach. Environmental Technology and Innovation, 27, 102401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eti.2022.102401
Turkyilmaz, A., Guney, M., Karaca, F., Bagdatkyzy, Z., Sandybayeva, A., & Sirenova, G. (2019). A comprehensive construction and demolition waste management model using PESTEL and 3R for construction companies operating in central Asia. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(6). https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061593
US EPA. (2020). Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: 2018 Fact Sheet. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery, December, 184.
Uysal, M., Akyuncu, V., Tanyildizi, H., Sumer, M., & Yildirim, H. (2019). Optimization of durability properties of concrete containing fly ash using Taguchi’s approach and Anova analysis. Revista de La Construccion, 17(3), 364–382. https://doi.org/10.7764/RDLC.17.3.364
Wang, X., Cheng, F., Wang, Y., Zhang, X., & Niu, H. (2020). Impact Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete with Nanosilica Modification. Advances in Civil Engineering, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8878368
Yu, Z., Guo, Y., Yue, G., Hu, Z., Liu, C., Li, Q., & Wang, L. (2021). Study on mechanical and shrinkage properties of high belite sulphoaluminate cement-based green recycled aggregate concrete. Crystals, 11(12). https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11121512
Zhang, L. W., Sojobi, A. O., Kodur, V. K. R., & Liew, K. M. (2019). Effective utilization and recycling of mixed recycled aggregates for a greener environment. Journal of Cleaner Production, 236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.07.075.
- 2023-05-03 (2)
- 2023-05-01 (1)
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Herbert Sinduja Joseph, Thamilselvi Pachiappan, Siva Avudaiappan, Pablo Guindos
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.