The effect of curing time and freeze-thaw cycles on the un-drained shear strength of lime-stabilized alluvial soils


  • Eylem Arslan Civil Engineering Department, Sakarya University, Sakarya (Türkiye)
  • Inci Develioglu Civil Engineering Department, Izmir Katip Çelebi University, İzmir (Türkiye)
  • Hasan Firat Pulat Civil Engineering Department, Izmir Katip Çelebi University, İzmir (Türkiye)



curing period, freeze-thaw cycle, lime stabilization, undrained shear strength.


This paper presents an experimental effort to elucidate the stabilization mechanism of alluvial soils with lime and check their durability against freeze and thaw (FT) cycles. The effect of stabilization-related parameters such as lime content and curing period were investigated. The lime content was changed as 0, 3, 6, 12 %, while curing periods were 7, 28, and 56 days. The mixtures were kept in a closed system cabinet at -24 and +24 Celsius degrees for 24 hours to expose the samples 0,1 and 2 FT cycles. To analyze and compare the effect of FT cycles, Unconsolidated-Undrained (UU) triaxial tests were performed under different cell pressures. In addition, SEM and EDAX analyses were conducted to evaluate the mechanism at the microstructural and compositional levels. It was determined that the highest strength could be obtained in the samples in which 6% lime content was kept in 28 days of cure. After this curing period, it has been determined that minerals that affect the mechanism between lime and soil adversely were formed. The fact that the development of chemical reactions stopped or did not progress in the 56-day curing period has confirmed the production of such minerals. However, these samples, whose strength did not increase as expected, were not affected much by FT cycles. It means, no significant difference was obtained from cycles 1 to 2, since a major part of the sample’s integrity was affected from the first cycle. The deterioration of the soil integration and growth of needle-like harmful minerals in the long term were also verified with the SEM images and EDAX analyses.


Download data is not yet available.


Al-Mukhtar, M., Khattab, S., & Alcover, J. F. (2012). Microstructure and geotechnical properties of lime-treated expansive clayey soil. Engineering Geolo-gy, 139(140), 17-27.

Alrubaye, A. J., Hasan, M., & Fattah, M. Y. (2018). Effects of using silica fume and lime in the treatment of kaolin soft clay. Geomechanics and Engineer-ing, 14(3), 247-255.

Arasan, S., & Nasirpur, O. (2015). The effects of polymers and fly ash on unconfined compressive strength and freeze-thaw behavior of loose saturated sand. Geomechanics and Engineering, 8(3), 361-375.

Arnett, S. J., Macphee, D. E., & Crammond, N. J. (2001). Solid Solutions Between Thaumasite and Ettringite and Their Role in Sulfate Attack. Journal of Concrete Science Engineering, 3, 209–215.

ASTM D560 (2016). Standard test methods for freezing and thawing compacted soil–cement mixtures, ASTM International; West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D4318-10 (2010). Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils, ASTM International; West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D2487-11 (2011). Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System), ASTM International; West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D698-12e2 (2012). Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 Ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3)), ASTM International; West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D854-14 (2014). Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer, ASTM International; West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D2850 (2015). Standard test method for unconsolidated-undrained triaxial compression test on cohesive soils, ASTM International; West Con-shohocken, PA.

ASTM D1140-17 (2017). Standard Test Methods for Determining the Amount of Material Finer than 75-μm (No. 200) Sieve in Soils by Washing, ASTM International; West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D7928-17 (2017). Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Fine-Grained Soils Using the Sedimentation (Hydrometer) Analysis, ASTM International; West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D4972-19 (2019). Standard Test Methods for pH of Soils, ASTM International; West Conshohocken, PA.

Baldovino, J. J. A., Izzo, R. L. S., & Rose, J. L. (2021). Effects of Freeze–thaw Cycles and Porosity/cement index on Durability, Strength and Capillary Rise of a Stabilized Silty Soil Under Optimal Compaction Conditions. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 39, 481-498.

Bell, F. G. (1996). Lime stabilization of clay minerals and soils. Engineering Geology, 42(223), 37.

Boardman, D. I., Glendinning, S., & Rogers, C. D. F. (2001). Development of stabilization and solidification in lime–clay mixes. Geotechnique, 51(6), 33–543.

Boz, A., & Sezer, A. (2018). Influence of fiber type and content on freeze-thaw resistance of fiber reinforced lime stabilized clay. Cold Regions Science and Technolgy, 151, 359-366.

Bozbey, I., Kelesoglu, M.K., Demir, B., Komut, M., Comez, S., Ozturk, T., Mert, A., Ocal, A., Oztoprak, S. (2018). Effects of soil pulverization level on resilient modulus and freeze and thaw resistance of a lime stabilized clay. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 151, 323-334.

Cai, Y., Shi, B., Ng, C.W.W. and Tang, C. (2006). Effect of polypropylene fibre and lime admixture on engineering properties of clayey soil. Engineering Geology, 87, 230–240.

Calik, U., & Sadoglu, E. (2014). Engineering properties of expansive clayey soil stabilized with lime and perlite. Geomechanics and Engineering, 6(4), 403-418.

Crammond, N. J. (2002). The Occurrence of Thaumasite in Modern Construction—A Review. Cement and Concrete Composites, 24, 393–402.

Cui, Z. D., He, P. P., & Yang, W. H. (2014). Mechanical properties of a silty clay subjected to freezing-thawing. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 98, 26-34.

Eades, J. L., & Grim, R. E. (1960). Reactions of Hydrated Lime with Pure Clay Minerals in Soil Stabilization. Highway Research Bulletin, 262.

Dermatas, D. (1995). Ettringite-Induced Swelling in Soils: State-of-the-Art. Applied Mechanics Reviews, 48(10), 659-673.

Firoozfar, A., & Khosroshiri, N. (2017). Kerman clay improvement by Lime and Bentonite to be used as materials of landfill liner. Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 35, 559–571.

Fredlund, D. G., & Rahardjo., H. (1993). Soil mechanics for unsaturated soils, John Wiley & Sons, New York.,

Gullu, H., & Khudir, A. (2014). Effect of freeze-thaw cycles on unconfined compressive strength of fine-grained soil treated with jute fiber, steel fiber and lime. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 106, 55-65.

Gullu, H., & Fedakar, H. I. (2017). Unconfined compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance of sand modified with sludge ash and polypropylene fiber. Geomechanics and Engineering, 13(1), 25-41.

Han, Y., Wang, Q., Wang, N., Wang, J., Zhang, X., Cheng, S., & Kong, Y. (2018). Effect of freeze-thaw cycles on shear strength of saline soil. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 154, 42–53.

Hilt, G. H., & Davidson, D. T. (1960). Lime fixation of clayey soils. High. Res. Board, Bull. 262, Washington, DC, 20-32.

Hotineanu, A., Bouasker, M., Aldaood, A., & Al-Mukhtar, M. (2015). Effect of freeze–thaw cycling on the mechanical properties of lime-stabilized ex-pansive clays. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 119 ,151-157.

ISO 13320:2020 (2020). Particle size analysis – Laser Diffraction Methods, International Organization for Standardization; Geneva, Switzerland.

Jafari, M., & Esna-ashari, M. (2012). Effect of waste tire cord reinforcement on unconfined compressive strength of lime stabilized clayey soil under freeze–thaw condition. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 82, 21–29.

Jahandari, S., Saberian, M., Tao, Z., Mojtahedi, F. F., Li, J., Ghasemi, M., Rezvani, S., & Li, W. (2019). Effects of saturation degrees, freezing-thawing, and curing on geotechnical properties of lime and lime-cement concretes. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 160, 242-251.

Jallad, K. N., Santhanam, M., & Cohen, M. D. (2003). Stability and Reactivity of Thaumasite at Different pH Levels. Cement and Concrete Research, 33(3), 433–437.

Jiang, N. J., Du, Y. J., Liu, S. Y., & Zhu, J. J. (2015). Experimental investigation of the compressibility behaviour of cement-solidified/stabilised zinc-contaminated kaolin clay. Geotechnique Letters, 4(1), 27–32.

Jumassultan, A., Sagidullina, N., Kim, J., Ku, T., & Moon, S. W. (2021). Performance of cement-stabilized sand subjected to freeze-thaw cycles. Geome-chanics and Engineering, 25(1), 41–48.

Kamata T., Tsukamato Y., & Ishihara K. (2009). Undrained shear strength of partially saturated sand in triaxial tests. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 42(1), 57–62.

Kassim, K. A., Hamir, R., & Kok, K. C. (2005). Modification and stabilization of Malaysian cohesive soils with lime. Geotechnical Engineering, 36(2), 123–132.

Li, A. Y., Niu, F. J., Zheng, H., Akagawa, S., Lin, Z., & Luo, J. (2017). Experimental measurement and numerical simulation of frost heave in saturated coarse-grained soil. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 137, 68-74.

Liang, B., Zhang, G.S ., & Liu, D. R. (2006). Experimental study on thawing subsidence characters of permafrost under frost heaving and thawing circula-tion. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 28(10), 1213–1217.

Little, D. N. (1998). Unpublished analysis of deflection data from FWD measurements on selected pavements containing lime stabilized subgrades in Mississippi.

Little, D. N., Herbert, B., & Kunagalli, S. N. (2005). Ettringite formation in lime- treated soils: Establishing thermodynamic foundations for engineering practice. Transportation Research Record, 1936, 51-59.

Liu, J., Wang, T., & Tian, Y. (2010). Experimental study of the dynamic properties of cementand lime-modified clay soils subjected to freeze-thaw cycles. Cold Regions Science and Technology. 61, 29–33.

Liu, Q., Yasufuku, N., Omine, K., & Hazarika, H. (2012). Automatic soil water retention test system with volume change measurement for sandy and silty soils. Soils and Foundations. 52(2), 368–380.

Mehta, K. S., Sonecha, R. J., Daxini, P. D., Ratanpara, P. B., & Gaikwad, K. S. (2014). Analysis of engineering properties of black cotton soil &stabilization using by lime. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 4(5), 25–32.

Mellas, M., Hamdane, A., Benmeddour, D., & Mabrouki, A. (2012). Improvement of the expansive soils by the lime for their use in road Works. In Pro-ceding 10th International Conference on Advances in Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, 1–8.

Miller, B. A., & Schaetzl, R. J. (2012). Precision of soil particle size analysis using laser diffractometry. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 76 ,1719–1727.

Mukhtar, M., Lasledj, A., & Alcover, J. F. (2010). Behavior and mineralogy changes in lime treated expansive soil at 20°C. Applied Clay Science, 50(2), 191–198.

Negi, A. S., Faizan, M., Siddharth, D. P., & Singh, R. (2013). Soil stabilization using lime. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science Engineer-ing and Technolgy, 2(2), 448-453.

Nguyen, T. T. H., Cui, Y. J., Ferber, V., Herrier, G., Ozturk, T., Plier, F., Puiatti, D., Salager, S., & Tang, A. M. (2019). Effect of freeze-thaw cycles on me-chanical strength of lime-treated fine-grained soils. Transportation Geotechnics, 21, 100281.

Nishimura, T. (2006). Drained shear test for unsaturated soil with different axial strain rate. Proceedings of Geo-Kanto, Kanto Branch of Japanese Ge-otechnical Society, 40-241.

O’Kelly, B. C. (2013). Atterberg limits and Remolded strength-water content relationships. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 36(6), 939-947.

Qu, Y. L., Chen, G. L, Niu, F. J., Ni, W. K., Mu, Y. H., & Luo, J. (2019). Effect of freeze-thaw cycles on uniaxial mechanical properties of cohesive coarse-grained soils. Journal of Mountain Science, 16(9), 2159-2170.

Osinubi, K. J. (1995). Lime modification of black cotton soils. Spectroscopy Journal, 2, 112–122.

Phanikumar, B. R., Sreedharan, R., & Aniruddh, C. (2015). Swell compressibility characteristics of lime-blended and cement-blended expansive clays - A comparative study. Geomechnics and Geoengineering, 10(2), 153–162.

Raja, P. S. K., & Thyagaraj, T. (2019). Effect of short-term sulphate contamination on lime-stabilized expansive soil”, International Journal of Geotech-nical Engineering, 1–13.

Saygili, A., & Dayan, M. (2019). Freeze-thaw behavior of lime stabilized clay reinforced with silica fume and synthetic fibers. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 161, 107-114.

Semerci, B., Develioglu, I., & Pulat, H. F. (2018). Geotechnical Characterization of Alluvial Soil in Çiğli - Balatçık Region. Eurasian Journal of Civil Engi-neering and Architecture, 2(2), 44-50.

Sharma, B., & Bora, P. K. (2003). Plastic limit, liquid limit, and undrained shear strength of soil-reappraisal. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmen-tal Engineering, ASCE, 129(8), 774-777.

Sharma, R. S., Phanikumar, B. R., & Rao B. V. (2008). Engineering behaviour of a remolded expansive clay blended with lime, calcium chloride, and rice-husk ash. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering.

Tanaka, T., Haung, S., & Fukuda, M. (2009). A study on cold region pipeline design based on full-scaled field experiment. 7th International Pipeline Conference, IPC, ASME, US, 4, 211–219.

Tang, C. S., Shi, B., Gao, W., Chen, F., & Cai, Y. (2007). Strength and mechanical behavior of short polypropylene fiber reinforced and cement stabilized clayey soil. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 25(3), 194–202.

Tebaldi, G., Orazi, M., & Orazi, U. (2016). Effect of freeze-thaw cycles on mechanical behavior of lime-stabilized soil. Journal of Materials in Civil Engi-neering, 28(6).

Tsukamoto, Y. (2019). Degree of saturation affecting liquefaction resistance and undrained shear strength of silty sands. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 124, 365-373.

Ünver, I. S., Lav, M. A., & Çokça, E. (2021). Improvement of an Extremely Highly Plastic Expansive Clay with Hydrated Lime and Fly Ash. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering.

Vanapalli, S. K., & Fredlund, D. G. (1997). Interpretation of undrained shear strength of unsaturated soils in terms of stress state variables. In: T.M.P. de Campos and E.A. Vargas, Jr., editors, Proceedings of the 3rd Brazilian Symposium on Unsaturated Soils, Rio de Janeiro, 22–25 Apr, 1, 35–45.

Viklander, P., & Eigenbrod, D. (2000). Stone movements and permeability changes in till caused by freezing and thawing. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 31, 151–162.

Walker, R. D., & Karabulut, C. (1965). Effect of freezing and thawing on unconfined compressive strength of lime-stabilized soils. Highway Research Board, 92, 1-11.

Wang, T. L., Bu, J. Q., & Wang, Y. (2014). Thaw subsidence properties of soils under repeated freeze–thaw cycles. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engi-neering, 36(4), 625–632.

Wang, T. L., Liu, Y. J., Yan, H., & Xu, L. (2015). An experimental study on the mechanical properties of silty soils under repeated freeze–thaw cycles. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 112, 51-65.

Wu, S., Wei, Y., Zhang, Y., Cai, H., Du, J., Wang, D., Yan, J., & Xiao, J. (2020). Dynamic Compaction of a Thick Soil-stone Fill: Dynamic Response and Strengthening Mechanisms. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 129, 105-944.

Yang, Y., Wang, L. J., Wendroth, O., Liu, B. Y., Cheng, C. C., Huang, T. T., & Shi, Y. Z. (2019). Is the laser diffraction method reliable for soil particle size distribution analysis. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 83, 276–287.

Yilmaz, F., Fidan, D. (2018). Influence of freeze-thaw on strength of clayey soil stabilized with lime and perlite. Geomechanics and Engineering, 14(3), 301–306.

Yıldız, M., & Soǧancı, A. S. (2012). Effect of freezing and thawing on strength and permeability of lime-stabilized clays. Scientia Iranica, 19, 1013–1017.

Zhan, G. F., Zhang, Q., Zhu, F., & Wei-zhi, D. (2015). Research on influence of freeze-thaw cycles on static strength of lime-treated silty clay. Fundamen-tal Theroy and Experimental Research, 36(2), 351-356.

Zhang, W., Guo, A., & Lin, C. (2019). Effects of cyclic freeze and thaw on engineering properties of compacted loess and lime stabilized loess. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 21(9), 4019205.

Zheng, Y., Ma, W., & Bing, H. (2015). Impact of freezing and thawing cycles on structure of soils and its mechanism analysis by laboratory testing. Rock and Soil Mechanics, 36(5), 1282-1287.




How to Cite

Arslan, E., Develioglu, I., & Pulat, H. F. (2023). The effect of curing time and freeze-thaw cycles on the un-drained shear strength of lime-stabilized alluvial soils. Revista De La Construcción. Journal of Construction, 22(2), 348–367.